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Articles by Agricultural Technology Research Institute

Serological and molecular characterization of two seed born cowpea mosaic Comovirus isolates affecting cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L.) in northern Egypt

Published on: 1st October, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8282686936

Cowpea plants naturally infected with cowpea mosaic comovirus (CPMV) showed different mosaic, mottle, dwarfing, and vain clearing symptoms. Diseased plants were ollected from certain locations of Alexandria and El-Beheira governorates during the growing seasons from 2011 to 2012. CPMV was detected in infected sap at 8 to 24 days after inoculation by DBIA, indirect ELISA and tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA). Chlorotic local lesions were observed on Chenopodium amaranticolor in infectivity test. By using indirect ELISA and DBIA, CPMV were detected in infected plant sap of serial dilutions up to 1: 400. The incidence of CPMV in 21 day old cowpea seedlings grown from infected seeds was determined by ELISA and positive detection of virus antigen reached 65%. Nitrocellulose membrane and canson paper could be used as solid carriers in TBIA and DBIA for detection of CPMV in infected plant tissues. Results revealed that both faces of nitrocellulose membrane and canson paper could be used as solid carriers in TBIA for detection of CPMV in infected plant tissues. According to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of CPMV infected plant; the amplified product was approximately 800bp of partial coat protein gene. The nucleotide sequences accession number were LN606585 and LN606586. The phylogenetic tree was generated using sequences of CPMV isolates with the other CPMV records from GenBank.
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Three modern serological methods to detect plant viruses

Published on: 10th October, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8299621413

The use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of plant viruses is well documented. It proved to be a very valuable detection tools for the plant viruses. The efficiency of the ELISA technique was for practical purpose independent of the ratio of antibodies to antigen. This avoids the necessity of making specific enzyme conjugates for each antigen to be tested and eliminates the extreme specificity, thus allowing for quantitative evaluation of strain relationships. The advantages of indirect ELISA are sample. It needs only to be macerated and added to the plate. The crude antiserum could be used, although it should be cross absorbed before to prevent spurious host reaction. Single commercially available second antibody conjugate is utilized, thus eliminating the problems of preparing and storing many different conjugated antisera. Blotting technique has become widely used for specific identification of nucleic acid and proteins. This dot assay was modified to detect protein by spotting the antigen on a nitrocellulose membrane and incubating the membrane in test antibody followed by incubation in peroxidase-conjugated second antibody to the first antibody, and by development in 4-chloro-1-naphthol. The above procedure termed dot blot immunobinding assay (DBIA). The technique of tissue blotting on nitrocellulose membrane was described for detection of plant viruses in infected plants. Tissue blots were made by pressing with a firm and gentile force, the freshly cut tissue surface on nitrocellulose membranes. The possibility of using both sides of the nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) by tissue blot immuno assay (TBIA) for the detection plant viruses. In an effort to reduce the cost of virus assays, different types of regular paper were evaluated as possible replacements for the commonly used nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) as the solid phase in the tissue-blot immunoassay (TBIA) were used. Comparisons between different serological methods were demonstrated by many investigators Dot immunobinding was eight times more sensitive for detection of PVX and four times more sensitive for detection of PVS and PVY than DAS-ELISA.
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Potential of Pleurotus sajor-caju compost for controlling Meloidogyne incognita and improve nutritional status of tomato plants

Published on: 30th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8507798528

The potential of spent compost of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju cultivated on rice (MCR) or wheat straws (MCW) was evaluated against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on tomato plants under field conditions during two successive seasons (2016 and 2017). The field trial was carried out in a clay loam soil naturally infested with M. incognita at a private farm, Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. Results revealed that all the tested treatments greatly suppressed final populations (Pf), numbers of galls and egg masses of M. incognita during both seasons as compared to the untreated treatment. The highest percentages of Pf reductions (81.1 - 87%) and (80.2 - 86.2%) were achieved with the chemical nematicide, Vydate® 10 G and treatments of (MCR and MCW) at application rate of 1200 g/m2 in the 1st and 2nd seasons, respectively. Moreover, the fruit yield during both seasons was increased significantly with all the applied treatments, especially treatment of MCW at application rate of 1200 g/m2. Additionally, chemical fruit properties were markedly improved with MCR and MCW treatments. Also, treatments of MCR and MCW achieved the highest percentages of nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Generally, the results indicated that spent compost obtained after cultivation of P. sajor-caju has a nematicidal potential against M. incognita, also improved nutritional status and increased tomato yield.
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The Importance of Potato virus Y Potyvirus

Published on: 19th February, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8930826479

Potato virus Y Potyvirus (PVY) is one of the most important aphid transmitted viral pathogen of potato worldwide. PVY affects potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.), which is an important economic crop. PVY infection with potato viruses usually causing severe economic damage affecting both tubers quality and trade. PVY can degrease the production of certified seed and also crops grown for processing or fresh market. Potato is considered as one of the most economically important solanaceous crops cultivated in different regions that (PVY) has been studied in many parts of the world. Wide host plant range is a characteristic of viruses belonging to the Potyviridae. 495 species in 72 genera of 31 families were reported to be infected by PVY. Under field conditions, potato plants are subjected to attack by many viruses. The most cited virus could affect potato in the world is PVY. It has been long recognized as a threat to potato cultivation. Several studies carried out and reported that PVY is the most important virus infecting potato in different localities. Our review article is showed that PVY are the most frequently detected viruses in potato.
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Natural infection of squash fruits (Cucurbita pepo) by Zucchini Yellow Mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) in Alexandria governorate

Published on: 20th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8586051082

An isolate of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was obtained from naturally infected squash fruits were grown in Abees region, Alexandria governorate. Disease symptoms were Showing mosaic, yellowing and blistering and absis symptoms. The identification was based on the symptoms developed on diagnostic hosts and serological reactions with antisera to cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2 (WMV-2) and ZYMV. Squash fruit isolate of ZYMV was transmitted by Aphis gossypii, Aphis neri and Myzus persicae in non-persistent manner. The virus was purified by ultra-centrifugation and PEG. The purified virus had an ultraviolet absorption spectrum typical of a nucleoprotein with A260/280 and A280/260 being 1.1 and 0.91 respectively. The yield of purified virus was 1.62 mg/100g infected leaf tissues. Specific antiserum was prepared and found to have a titer of 1:409600 as determined by indirect ELISA.
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Incidence and disease control of Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus

Published on: 5th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8874829502

Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) was first identified in northern Italy. It likes other species of the family Potyuiridue. ZYMV has been recorded in many countries since 1981. The efficient intercontinental spread of the virus can be explained by international trading of infected seeds. Since coat protein (CP) analysis has become a primary method for taxonomic assignment of potyviruses the aims were to characterize this genomic region of ZYMV originating from virus-infected cucurbitaceous seedlings. Virus infection in cucurbits is typically associated with mosaic symptoms on leaves and lumpy, distorted fruit. The range of symptoms produced by each virus can overlap and plants are commonly infected by more than one virus at once. The viruses are spread by many species of aphids moving through or within a crop. Control options include: destroying old cucurbit crops as soon as harvesting is completed destroying weeds and volunteer cucurbits, within and around crops as these harbor the viruses and/or the aphids separating new crops from maturing crops as these will have high levels of virus infection avoiding overlapping crops of cucurbits.
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Antiviral and Antinematodal potentials of chitosan: Review

Published on: 14th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872700405

For many years, chemical pesticides have been performed to control different pests and diseases and this may be due to their broad spectrum of action, easy of application and the relatively low cost. But these chemicals have environmental risks, thus alternative control agents are needed. Chitosan is one of the novel suggested solutions to reduce the economic losses associated with chemical pesticides. Chitosan is naturally-occurring compound, as well as safe and biodegradable which obtained from certain natural sources. Chitosan have unique properties which help to control viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects, plant nematodes and other pests locally and systemically.
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