Articles by VACSERA

HBV: Genomic Structure, HBVsAg Isolation and innovative Virotherapy Initiation in the Middle East

Published on: 9th August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286354687

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the world’s major infectious diseases with 350 million people who are chronic carriers of HBV [1]. Significant minorities go on to develop liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and over 1 million die annually from HBV-diseased liver. Janahi E. at faculty of science, Bahrain University, Bahrain has submitted the following information [2], on HBV-genome organization as part of his Ph.D. degree (2007) in Imperial College, England. HBV genomic organization has 4 Open Reading Frames (ORFs) i.e. Pre-S/S Gene, Pre-C/C ORF, P ORF and X ORF. Regulatory Elements has 4 promoters (pre S2, pre S1, C promoters and X promoters), Pregenomic RNA, Enhancers (Enh 1 and Enh 2) where they are involved in cccDNA formation, Glococorticoid-Responsive Element which is located in X ORF and P ORF overlapping, Polyadenylation Signal (Direct Repeat 1 (DR1) and Direct Repeat 2 (DR2)), Epsilon-Stem Loop and Post-Transcriptional Regulatory Element. HBV genotype D is prevalent in our Middle East area. The HBV genome is a partially relaxed-circular dsDNA molecule consisting of a full length strand (minus strand) with a single unique nick and a complementary (positive strand) of variable length. HBV is considered as a para-retrovirus because its replication involves the reverse transcription of an intermediate-RNA function, of pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA). Replication of HBV genome starts with the encapsidation of the pgRNA and encodes HBV polymerase into an immature nucleocapsid formed by the viral core antigen.
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