Possible bases of the resistance of Coconut palm to the phytoplasma that causes lethal yellowing disease

Luis Sáenz-Carbonell* and Iván Córdova-Lara

Published: 17 February, 2023 | Volume 7 - Issue 1 | Pages: 014-016

Phytoplasmas belong to the parasitic group of mollicutes, which represent a phylogenetically coherent group of pathogens that colonize a wide spectrum of hosts and insects [1].

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jpsp.1001099 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


  1. Bertaccini A, Lee IM. Phytoplasmas: An Update, In: Phytoplasmas: Plant Pathogenic Bacteria – I. Characterisation and Epidemiology of Phytoplasma - Associated Diseases. Edited by Rao GP, Bertaccini A, Fiore N,. Liefting LW. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018; 1-29.
  2. Weintraub PG, Trivellone V, Krüger K. The Biology and Ecology of Leafhopper Transmission of Phytoplasmas. In: Bertaccini, A, Weintraub P, Rao G, Mori N. (eds) Phytoplasmas: Plant Pathogenic Bacteria - II. Springer, Singapore. 2019; 27-51. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2832-9_2
  3. Hogenhout SA, Oshima K, Ammar el-D, Kakizawa S, Kingdom HN, Namba S. Phytoplasmas: bacteria that manipulate plants and insects. Mol Plant Pathol. 2008 Jul;9(4):403-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2008.00472.x. PMID: 18705857; PMCID: PMC6640453.
  4. Oropeza-Salín C, Sáenz L, Narvaez M, Nic-Matos G, Córdova I, Myrie W, Ortíz CF, Ramos E. Dealing with Lethal Yellowing and Related Diseases in Coconut. Coconut Biotechnology: Towards the Sustainability of the ‘Tree of Life’. Ed by Adkins S, Foale M, Bourdeix R, Nguyen Q, Biddle J. Springer Nature Switzerland. 2020; 169-198. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44988-9_9. Print ISBN 978-3-030-44987-2.
  5. Zizumbo-Villareal D, Colunga-García P, Fernández-Barrera M, Torres-Hernández N, Oropeza C. Mortality of Mexican coconut germplasm due to lethal yellowing. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, FAO-Bioversity. 2008; 156: 23-33.
  6. Arroyo-Serralta GA, Zizumbo-Villareal D, Escalante-Erosa F, Peña-Rodríguez LM. Cuticular Wax Composition of Coconut Palms and their Susceptibility to Lethal Yellowing Disease. Journal of Mexican Chemical Society. 2012; 56(1): 67-71.
  7. Narváez M, Vázquez-Euán R, Harrison NA, Nic-Matos G, Julia JF, Dzido JL, Fabre S, Dollet M, Oropeza C. Presence of 16SrIV phytoplasmas of subgroups A, D and E in planthopper Haplaxius crudus Van Duzee insects in Yucatán, Mexico. 3 Biotech. 2018 Jan;8(1):61. doi: 10.1007/s13205-018-1094-5. Epub 2018 Jan 11. PMID: 29354372; PMCID: PMC5762597.
  8. Zhang M, Coaker G. Harnessing Effector-Triggered Immunity for Durable Disease Resistance. Phytopathology. 2017 Aug;107(8):912-919. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-03-17-0086-RVW. Epub 2017 May 30. PMID: 28430023; PMCID: PMC5810938.
  9. Bai X, Correa VR, Toruño TY, Ammar el-D, Kamoun S, Hogenhout SA. AY-WB phytoplasma secretes a protein that targets plant cell nuclei. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2009 Jan;22(1):18-30. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-22-1-0018. PMID: 19061399.
  10. Sugio A, MacLean AM, Kingdom HN, Grieve VM, Manimekalai R, Hogenhout SA. Diverse targets of phytoplasma effectors: from plant development to defense against insects. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2011;49:175-95. doi: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-072910-095323. PMID: 21838574.
  11. Lo Presti L, Lanver D, Schweizer G, Tanaka S, Liang L, Tollot M, Zuccaro A, Reissmann S, Kahmann R. Fungal effectors and plant susceptibility. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2015;66:513-45. doi: 10.1146/annurev-arplant-043014-114623. PMID: 25923844.
  12. Puch-Hau C, Oropeza-Salín C, Peraza-Echeverría S, Gongora-Paredes, M, Córdova-Lara I, Narvaez-Cab M, Zizumbo-Villareal D, Sáenz-Carbonell L. Molecular cloning and characterization of disease-resistance gene candidates of the nucleotide binding site (NBS) type from Cocos nucifera L. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology. 2015; 89: 87-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpp.2015.01.002
  13. Du B, Zhang W, Liu B, Hu J, Wei Z, Shi Z, He R, Zhu L, Chen R, Han B, He G. Identification and characterization of Bph14, a gene conferring resistance to brown planthopper in rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Dec 29;106(52):22163-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0912139106. Epub 2009 Dec 14. PMID: 20018701; PMCID: PMC2793316.
  14. Trivedi P, Duan Y, Wang N. Huanglongbing, a systemic disease, restructures the bacterial community associated with citrus roots. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Jun;76(11):3427-36. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02901-09. Epub 2010 Apr 9. PMID: 20382817; PMCID: PMC2876436.
  15. Anguita-Maeso M, Ares-Yebra A, Haro C, Román-Écija M, Olivares-García C, Costa J, Marco-Noales E, Ferrer A, Navas-Cortés JA, Landa BB. Xylella fastidiosa Infection Reshapes Microbial Composition and Network Associations in the Xylem of Almond Trees. Front Microbiol. 2022 Jul 14;13:866085. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.866085. PMID: 35910659; PMCID: PMC9330911.
  16. Bulgari D, Casati P, Crepaldi P, Daffonchio D, Quaglino F, Brusetti L, Bianco PA. Restructuring of endophytic bacterial communities in grapevine yellows-diseased and recovered Vitis vinifera L. plants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Jul;77(14):5018-22. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00051-11. Epub 2011 May 27. PMID: 21622794; PMCID: PMC3147392.
  17. Iasur-Kruh L, Zahavi T, Barkai R, Freilich S, Zchori-Fein E, Naor V. Dyella-Like Bacterium Isolated from an Insect as a Potential Biocontrol Agent Against Grapevine Yellows. Phytopathology. 2018 Mar;108(3):336-341. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-06-17-0199-R. Epub 2018 Feb 2. PMID: 28990480.
  18. Gamalero E, Marzachì C, Galetto L, Veratti F, Massa N, Bona E, Novello G, Glick BR, Ali S,Cantamessa S, D’Agostino G, Berta G. An 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)deaminase-expressing endophyte increases plant resistance to “flavescence dorée” phytoplasma infection. Plant Biosystems. 2017; 151:331–340.
  19. Morales-Lizcano NP, Hasan A, To HS, Lekadou TT, Copeland J, Wang P, Diallo HA, Konan Konan JL, Yoshioka K, Moeder W, Scott J, Arocha Rosete Y. Microbial diversity in leaves, trunk and rhizosphere of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.) associated with the coconut lethal yellowing phytoplasma in Grand-Lahou, Côte d’Ivoire. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2017; 16:1534-1550.
  20. Gonella E, Musetti R, Crotti E, Martini M, Casati P, Zchori-Fein E. Microbe Relationships with Phytoplasmas in Plants and Insects. In: Bertaccini A, Weintraub P, Rao G, Mori N (eds) Phytoplasmas: Plant Pathogenic Bacteria - II. Springer, Singapore. 2019; 207-235. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2832-9_10
  21. Lee IM, Davis RE, Gundersen-Rindal DE. Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2000;54:221-55. doi: 10.1146/annurev.micro.54.1.221. PMID: 11018129.


Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More

Help ?